2018年7月8日 星期日

從頭開始,一步一步架起低成本網站【第3章~安裝FTP站台並啟用SSL加密連線供上傳程式檔案】



前面已經安裝了web和db,接下來如果購買VPS主機的話就需要使用FTP去上傳你所撰寫的程式

【安裝VSFTPD】

sudo apt-get install vsftpd

【檢查VSFTPD是否已安裝】

netstat -tul | grep ftp
OR
service vsftpd status




【/etc/vsftpd.conf】內容



# Example config file /etc/vsftpd.conf

# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file

# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.

# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.

#

# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.

# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's

# capabilities.

#

#

# Run standalone?  vsftpd can run either from an inetd or as a standalone

# daemon started from an initscript.

listen=NO



#

# This directive enables listening on IPv6 sockets. By default, listening

# on the IPv6 "any" address (::) will accept connections from both IPv6

# and IPv4 clients. It is not necessary to listen on *both* IPv4 and IPv6

# sockets. If you want that (perhaps because you want to listen on specific

# addresses) then you must run two copies of vsftpd with two configuration

# files.

listen_ipv6=YES

# Allow anonymous FTP? (Disabled by default).

anonymous_enable=NO

#

# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.

local_enable=YES

#

# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.

write_enable=YES

#

# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,

# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)

#local_umask=022

#

# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only

# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will

# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.

#anon_upload_enable=YES

#

# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create

# new directories.

#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES

# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they

# go into a certain directory.

dirmessage_enable=YES

#

# If enabled, vsftpd will display directory listings with the time

# in  your  local  time  zone.  The default is to display GMT. The

# times returned by the MDTM FTP command are also affected by this

# option.

use_localtime=YES

#

# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.

xferlog_enable=YES

#

# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).

connect_from_port_20=YES

#

# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by

# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not

# recommended!

#chown_uploads=YES

#chown_username=whoever

# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown

# below.

xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log

#

# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format.

# Note that the default log file location is /var/log/xferlog in this case.

xferlog_std_format=YES

#

# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.

idle_session_timeout=120

#

# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.

#data_connection_timeout=120

#

# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the

# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.

#nopriv_user=ftpsecure

#

# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not

# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,

# however, may confuse older FTP clients.

#async_abor_enable=YES



# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore

# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII

# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.

# Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service

# attack (DoS) via the command "SIZE /big/file" in ASCII mode. vsftpd

# predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the

# raw file.

# ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.

#ascii_upload_enable=YES

#ascii_download_enable=YES

#

# You may fully customise the login banner string:

#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.

#

# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently

# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.

#deny_email_enable=YES

# (default follows)

#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails

#

# You may restrict local users to their home directories.  See the FAQ for

# the possible risks in this before using chroot_local_user or

# chroot_list_enable below.

chroot_local_user=YES

#

# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home

# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of

# users to NOT chroot().

# (Warning! chroot'ing can be very dangerous. If using chroot, make sure that

# the user does not have write access to the top level directory within the

# chroot)

#chroot_local_user=YES

chroot_list_enable=YES

# (default follows)

chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list

#

# You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by

# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large

# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume

# the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.

#ls_recurse_enable=YES

#

# Customization

#

# Some of vsftpd's settings don't fit the filesystem layout by

# default.

#

# This option should be the name of a directory which is empty.  Also, the

# directory should not be writable by the ftp user. This directory is used

# as a secure chroot() jail at times vsftpd does not require filesystem

# access.

secure_chroot_dir=/var/run/vsftpd

#

# This string is the name of the PAM service vsftpd will use.

pam_service_name=vsftpd

#

# This option specifies the location of the RSA certificate to use for SSL

# encrypted connections.

rsa_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem

rsa_private_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key

ssl_enable=NO



#

# Uncomment this to indicate that vsftpd use a utf8 filesystem.

#utf8_filesystem=YES






【重新啟動程式】


sudo service vsftpd restart

建立FTP帳號


【建立帳號】

adduser [example_user]

【將帳號加入ftp群組】

adduser [example_user] ftp


將example_user帳號加入到vsftpd.chroot_list清單中

vim /etc/vsftpd.chroot_list


將home目錄的可寫入權限拿掉(系統要求安全性)

chmod a-w /home/example_user


【建立關連的資料夾並連結到web站台】


sudo mkdir /home/example_user/www
mount –bind /web/home/example_user/www

【變更資料夾可寫入】


sudo chmod 775 /web/www


最後上傳網站檔案



啟用SSL加密連線


產生憑證


openssl req -days 3650 -new -x509 -nodes  -out /etc/ssl/tls/vsftpd.pem -keyout /etc/ssl/tls/vsftpd.key

指定證書及 key


rsa_cert_file=/etc/ssl/tls/vsftpd.pem
rsa_private_key_file=/etc/ssl/tls/vsftpd.key


啟動 SSL,不允許匿名用戶,強制資料傳輸及登入都使用 SSL


ssl_enable=YES
allow_anon_ssl=NO
force_local_data_ssl=YES
force_local_logins_ssl=YES

明確的限制使用 TLS v1,其安全性高於 SSL


ssl_tlsv1=YES
ssl_sslv2=NO
ssl_sslv3=NO

取消數據與控制流使用相同通道的設定


require_ssl_reuse=NO

憑證的加密模式,預設 DES


ssl_ciphers=HIGH


啟用UTF8編碼


utf8_filesystem=YES

重新啟動 vsftpd 服務


service vsftpd restart

設定開機啟動 vsftpd 服務


chkconfig vsftpd on



Client端連接

安裝FileZilla Ftp Client端軟體,選擇【需要透過外顯式TLS的FTP】加密,接著看你連接時是否使用TLS加密連接





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